Although people had already been living in Scotland for thousands of years, the recorded history of Scotland begins with the arrival of the Roman Empire in the 1st century. At this time, the province of Britannia reached as far north as the Antonine Wall. North of this was Caledonia, inhabited by the Picti, whose uprisings forced Rome’s legions back to Hadrian’s Wall. As Rome finally withdrew from Britain, Gaelic raiders called the Scoti began colonising Western Scotland and Wales.
The Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata was founded on the west coast of Scotland in the 6th century. In the following century, Irish missionaries introduced the previously pagan Picts to Celtic Christianity. Following England’s Gregorian mission, the Pictish king Nechtan chose to abolish most Celtic practices in favour of the Roman rite, restricting Gaelic influence on his kingdom and avoiding war with Anglian Northumbria.
AD-79 Roman Conquest of north Britain
84 Romans defeat Caledonians at the Battle of Mons Graupius.
122 Romans construct Hadrian’s Wall.
126 Disappearance of the Ninth Legion.
143 Romans construct the Antonine Wall.
196 Maeatae overrun Hadrian’s Wall.
350 Birth of Saint Ninian
360 Picts and Scots invade across Hadrians wall
407 Roman legions withdrawn from Britain
498 Scots settlers form the kingdom of Dal Riada
521 Birth of St Columba
563 St Columba founds a monastery on Iona
640 Battle of Glen Moriston Picts vs Scots
748 Aed Finn MacEochaid becomes King of the Scots.
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